Prospecting and Development of Oil and Gas Fields <p>"Prospecting and Development of Oil and Gas Fields" includes the following sections of Oil and Gas Engineering:</p> <p>&nbsp;·&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; topical problems of oil and gas sphere</p> <p>·&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; engineering and technology</p> <p>·&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; research and methods of&nbsp;analysis</p> <p>·&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; science to production</p> <p>·&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; fields experience</p> <p>·&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; certification, standardization, and quality</p> <p>·&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; history of oil and gas science and technology</p> <p>&nbsp;The "Prospecting and Development of Oil and Gas Fields" Journal publishes review and research works that are dedicated to these subjects (but not limited only by them).</p> Ivano-Frankivsk National Technical University of Oil and Gas en-US Prospecting and Development of Oil and Gas Fields 1993-9973 REGARDING REAL PROSPECTS FOR DISCOVERING NEW DEPOSITS AND INCREASING OIL AND GAS PRODUCTION IN THE WESTERN REGION OF UKRAINE <p><em>The article deals with the research of the potential of oil-and-gas content within the Western Ukrainian oil and gas region.&nbsp; The main directions and ways of increasing oil and gas production are determined. Consequently, <br></em><em>the discovery of new hydrocarbon fields is the major direction to boost oil and gas production. The issue of the <br></em><em>discovery of new oil and gas fields is suggested to divide into the following directions: a search for oil and gas fields at shallow depths (short-term prospect), a search for oil and gas fields at mid-depths and a search for oil and gas fields at great depths (the main prospects of increasing oil and gas production). The geological and geophysical data were </em><em>thoroughly analyzed throughout structural and tectonic units within </em><em>the </em><em>Western region of Ukraine </em><em>with the aim of substantiating</em> <em>the prospects of their oil-and-gas content and introduction of new directions </em><em>of </em><em>oil-and-gas</em><em> exploration. The prospects of oil-and-gas content of the Neogene and the Mesozoic deposits of </em><em>the </em><em>exterior</em><em> of the pre-Carpathian depression and flysch of the interior of the pre-Carpathian depression are </em><em>provided. The prospects of oil-and-gas content of the Cretaceous and the Paleogene deposits of folded Carpathians</em> <em>are characterized. The promising directions for further oil-and-gas exploration within indicated tectonic elements of Carpathian region are identified; the top priority project sites are suggested. Wildcat drilling and further oil-and-gas exploration are strongly recommended for all identified project sites. The research has identified the most promising exploration project sites. All of them are illustrated with appropriate maps and cross-sections. Thus, the most promising ones at shallow depths (up to 2000 m) are the following ones: South-Slyvkinske, Anhelivka, Hoshiv and</em> <em>Verkhnii Hutyn <br></em><em>elevations</em><em>. At mid-depths there are Pechenizhyn, Kliuchiv, Uhilnia and Boratychi elevations. At depths over 4000 m there are the following ones: Horodyshche structure, Posada, Dubliany, South-Lopushnia, Biskiv, Sloboda-Dolyna and Mizhrichchia elevations, Pidrezhzhia and Dobromyl-Strilbychi structures. The assessment of the resource <br></em><em>potential of identified </em><em>exploration project sites was done</em><em>.</em></p> L. S. Monchak S.H. Anikeiev G.O. Zhuchenko T. V. Zderka Yu. L. Monchak V. R. Khomyn Copyright (c) 2019 Prospecting and Development of Oil and Gas Fields 2019-06-25 2019-06-25 2(71) 7 19 10.31471/1993-9973-2019-2(71)-7-19 EXTRACTION OF THE RESIDUAL GAS DEPLETED GAS RESERVOIRS NITROGEN INJECTION <p><em>The relevance and feasibility of extracting residual gas from depleted gas deposits is shown. The possible <br>directions of the extraction of residual gas from depleted gas deposits by its displacement from a porous medium of non-hydrocarbon gases are characterized. The use of nitrogen to displace natural gas from a porous medium has been substantiated. Using the GEM compositional modeling module, which is included in the licensed computer program CMG (Computer Modeling Group), studies were made of the effect of the pressure of the start of injection of nitrogen into the reservoir and the duration of its injection period on the gas recovery coefficient for residual gau. The study was conducted for deposits of square and round shape. The research results are presented in the form of graphical dependencies of the current reservoir pressure, nitrogen content in borehole products and gas recovery coefficient for residual gas from the pressure of the start of injection of nitrogen into the reservoir and the&nbsp;</em><em>duration of the period of its injection. Using the results of the research, the optimal values ​​of the parameters of the process of injecting nitrogen into the exhausted gas deposits of square and round forms and the corresponding </em><em>values ​​of the gas recovery coefficient were established. For the considered deposits of square and rounded forms, they are 0.29 Р</em><em><sub>in</sub></em><em> and 14.8 months, 0.31 Р</em><em><sub>in</sub></em><em> and 12.9 months, respectively. At the time of reaching the volumetric nitrogen content in the producing gas of 5 %, the gas recovery coefficient for residual gas for a square-shaped </em><em>deposit is 83.91 %, for a round-shaped deposit –</em><em> 77.49 %. The physical nature of the process of displacing residual gas with nitrogen from depleted gas deposits of square and round forms is characterized.</em></p> R. M. Kondrat O. R. Kondrat L. I. Khaidarova Copyright (c) 2019 Prospecting and Development of Oil and Gas Fields 2019-06-25 2019-06-25 2(71) 20 29 10.31471/1993-9973-2019-2(71)-20-29 THE DEVELOPMENT OF THEORETICAL BACKGROUND OF CONTROLLING THE CAVITATION-IMPULSE EFFECT ON A BOTTOM-HOLE ON THE BASIS OF THE THEORY OF SPECTRA <p><em>The authors consider the technology of intensification of the rock failure during the drilling of the wells using the substantiation of physico-mechanical, cavitation and technological processes. Further development of the mechanism of rock failure due to the created cavitation processes, the manifestation of which is possible at the well bottom when drilling with modern types of drill bits, is an important scientific and technical problem. The solution of this problem will significantly increase the efficiency and reliability of drilling the wells. The development of the mechanism is of great practical importance for oil-and-gas industry. The authors have further developed the mechanisms of rock failure during drilling, which allow to take into account as constant actions both the mechanical effect of the drill bit cutting structure on the rock and the cavitation effect of the cooling flushing fluid on the bottom-hole surface. For the first time it has been proved that cavitation-impulse treatment of a bottom during drilling allows to evaluate the erosion effect of cavitation at various distances from the cavitator, taking into account dissipative losses, and to increase the proportion of energy directed to the rock. For the first time, the possibility of choosing the most optimal mode of cavitation-impulse load at the bottom of a well has been substantiated. To evaluate the effectiveness of the cavitation-pulsation washing technology, analytical dependencies have been proposed. Those dependencies allow to predict the frequency distribution of energy from the collapse of cavitation bubbles created by the cavitator at the bottom of the well. It allows to control actively the process of cavitation-impulse impact on rocks in course of their failure during drilling.</em> <em>The authors provide characteristics that show the cavitation-pulsation process fully. Thus, these characteristics allow to evaluate the effectiveness of the process in the rocks failure at the bottom-hole more accurately. When conducting cavitation-impulse treatment of the bottomhole, in order to create artificial cracking, the load mode, namely the distribution of the load energy over frequency ranges, is of importance. To expand the area of the cavitation-impulse treatment of ​​the rock mass, it is necessary to form such loads that the main part of the energy is concentrated in the low frequency range. With the increase of the distance from the perturbance source (cavitator) low frequencies attenuate less in comparison with high frequencies. In order to choose the most optimal mode of cavitation-impulse load on the bottom hole, the distribution of energy over various frequency ranges in the process of the spread of cavitation-impulse effect on a rock massif has been studied. The suggested analytical dependencies allow to predict the frequency distribution of energy which is released when the cavitation bubbles collapse at the bottom-hole. It gives a possibility to control the process of cavitation-impulse effect on rocks in the process of their failure during drilling.</em></p> I. I. Chudyk Ya. M. Femiak Copyright (c) 2019 Prospecting and Development of Oil and Gas Fields 2019-06-25 2019-06-25 2(71) 30 37 10.31471/1993-9973-2019-2(71)-30-37 SIMULATION MODELLING IN THE STRUCTURAL GRAVITY PROSPECTING <p><em>In accordance with the purpose of geophysical exploration, the gravity data interpretation is aimed at <br></em><em>prospecting mineral resources which is based on the study of the geological cross-section structure. The task of quantitative interpretation, which uses methods of gravity modeling and gravity inversion, is the modelling of a gravity field (gravity modeling) and of a density structure of geological environments (gravity inversion). The article presents the definition and steps of the gravity data modelling technique. This technique is based on the construction of an informal sequence of equivalent solutions. The technological and geological features of methods for modelling the density structure of complex geological environments are given; among them geological content, consistency with a priori data and the subordination of modelling to geological hypotheses are important. The topicality and methods of simulation modelling are outlined. The purpose of simulation modelling is to study the properties of gravity inversion in the general formulation, as well as to evaluate the degree of detail and reliability of the methods and technologies of gravity modelling, which claim to be an effective solution to geological problems. The example of structural simulation testing of the methods of informal sequence of equivalent solutions and its computer </em><em>technologies shows that a complex interpretation of seismic and gravity measurements data enables the creation of detailed density models of structural cross-sections. The ways of increasing the veracity of gravity data modelling of structural cross-sections have been studied. It is revealed that the best approximation of the regional background is an inclined plane which approximates the observed field of gravity according to characteristic pickets over the </em><em>research areas that are better studied. The increase in the veracity of modeling can also be achieved by rebuilding the near side zones in the structural type models in an interactive process of solving structural gravity inversion problems. Substantive modeling depends primarily on the experience of the interpreter since computer technologies for gravity modeling and gravity inversion are merely an interpretation tool.</em></p> S. H. Anikeyev S. M. Bahriy B. B. Hablovskiy Copyright (c) 2019 Prospecting and Development of Oil and Gas Fields 2019-06-25 2019-06-25 2(71) 38 48 10.31471/1993-9973-2019-2(71)-38-48 THE IMPROVEMENT ON THE EFFICIENCY OF CLEANING GAS PIPELINES FROM LIQUID CONTAMINANTS <p><em>The article considers modern methods of improving the efficiency of pipeline transport cleaning. The most </em><em><br></em><em>effective method for increasing the efficiency of the gas pipeline is its periodic cleaning with the use of mechanical cleaning units. The reasons for the decrease of efficiency are the presence of fluid in the pipeline interior. Fluid can be in two forms – high-viscosity resin sediments and low-viscosity liquid sediments. Sediments reduce the area of the cross-section and increase the hydraulic resistance. Regardless of the design of the cleaning units, none of them can completely remove liquid contamination. The authors analyze the causes of the flow over the moving boundary. This overflow worsens the quality of gas pipeline cleaning. At the moment when the cleaning piston meets an </em><em>obstruction of liquid contaminants in the gas pipeline there is a hydraulic impact as a result of which the sealing elements of the piston deform, and part of the fluid overflows into the chamber behind the piston. The authors </em><em>discover that the increase of cleaning efficiency can be achieved by reducing the amount of pressure increase (which is the result of hydraulic impact) without decreasing the piston speed. The algorithm for improving the </em><em>efficiency of pipeline cleaning is suggested. It is based on the reduction of over-the-moving-boundary flow by the aeration of the liquid plug. </em><em>The influence of the gas content of the liquid plug on the amount of the flow in behind-the-piston space has been investigated. A mathematical model of the process was created. On the basis of its </em><em>implementation the patterns of pressure fluctuations in the gas-liquid medium are established. On the basis of the calculations, the authors have designed the graphic dependence of the pressure change in the liquid phase on the length of the obstruction and the dependence of the pressure on a piston on the gas saturation of the liquid plug.</em></p> V. Ya. Hrudz N. B. Slobodian Copyright (c) 2019 Prospecting and Development of Oil and Gas Fields 2019-06-25 2019-06-25 2(71) 49 54 10.31471/1993-9973-2019-2(71)-49-54 FORECASTING CURRENT HYDROCARBONS AND HYDROCARBONS CUMULATED BY THE PRODUCTION WITH THE USE OF THE PROBABILISTIC-STATISTICAL MODELS <p><em>In the course of time any well, no matter how efficiently it was exploited and how rationally formation energy was used, stops blowing-out (flowing). </em><em>Consequently, there appears a need to switch to artificial lift well operation methods and in both cases there is a need to predict the change of the parameters of the well operation, namely the change of flow rate. </em></p> <p><em>Nowadays, to predict the </em><em>flow</em><em>rate, the logarithmic dependence is mainly used, but it does not always describe accurately the nature of the change in the amount of produced oil. In the design of the development of “new” oil and gas fields the numerical methods based on computer geological and industrial models took a prominent place. These methods provide an acceptable (for now) </em><em>and the most reliable technological </em><em>parameters of </em><em>the development of hydrocarbon </em><em>accumulation but on condition of &nbsp;</em><em>the availability of complete and </em><em>satisfactory accurate information. This gives the opportunity to build a probable digitized geological model of the reservoir.</em><em> &nbsp;Such a model </em><em>should be gradually clarified </em><em>for the time of </em><em>drafting &nbsp;the </em><em>next </em><em>design document.</em></p> <p><em>There wasn’t a lot of information with satisfactory accuracy </em><em>about the “old” developed </em><em>accumulations and </em><em>it was not necessary </em><em>to specify the </em><em>set of parameters for analytical design.</em><em> Therefore, it is almost impossible and economically unprofitable to build a modern geological model for them. It is only possible to get approximately the real overview of the depletion of oil reserves and to evaluate promising parameters of the development of deposits.</em></p> <p><em>But, </em><em>for both “new” and “old” fields there is a need </em><em>to explore deposits </em><em>additionally at the final stages of development and </em><em>to evaluate the nature of their behavior in future.</em></p> <p><em>It proves the importance of predicting the well flow rate and, overall, the fields development parameters at a mature production stage concerning both “new” and “old” fields according to the actual statistics of field development.</em> <em>Having studied the history (retrospective), it is possible to conclude about the further development of the basic production data (perspective) without great time and labour input. Automatically</em> <em>&nbsp;the characteristics</em><em> of the system implemented in the </em><em>prospect and development technolog</em><em>ies </em><em>are taken into&nbsp; account</em><em>.</em></p> V. S. Boiko B. M. Mishchuk Copyright (c) 2019 Prospecting and Development of Oil and Gas Fields 2019-06-25 2019-06-25 2(71) 55 70 10.31471/1993-9973-2019-2(71)-55-70 THE PREDICTION OF STATIONARY MODES OF OPERATION OF GAS SUPPLY SYSTEMS BY THE METHOD OF INTEGRAL COEFFICIENTS <p><em>The authors present the methods of generating the system of the integral coefficients of influence for gas transmission systems aiming at the estimation of the parameters of its work on stationary operating modes. Each change of the technological parameters of the operation mode at the input of the gas transmission system will necessarily cause the reaction of the system which will manifest itself in changing the corresponding parameters at its output. Obviously, the parameters of the input and output of the system are interconnected by a complex system of equations, the implementation of which requires certain time costs and gathering additional information about the technical and hydrogasdynamic states of the system at each moment. Under the conditions of incomplete loading of the gas transmission system, which involves frequent changes in its operation modes, the accomplishment of the task is not always possible. It is suggested to create a system of integral coefficients of influence which characterize the ratio of input and output information in different stationary modes, and formally submit it in a matrix form. The processes characterized by integral coefficients of influence implicitly contain the technological parameters of the gas pipeline (length, diameter, hydraulic resistance coefficient, heat transfer to the environment, etc.) which can not always be determined with sufficient accuracy by the deterministic methods. The suggested methodology involves the creation of simple and effective methods of predicting which allow estimating the state of the gas pipeline by the costs and pressures at the inputs and outputs of the system, that is, by the operational data that are being monitored. On the basis of the proposed methodology, it is suggested to create an operational system that will allow managing the modes of operation of the main gas pipeline in cases of frequent changes in pumping volumes. When changing the technological scheme of the gas transmission system, there is a need to adapt the integral coefficients of influence. The application of the proposed methods is illustrated by the example of the main gas pipeline Soyuz.</em></p> Ye. I. Kryzhanivskyi V. Ya. Hrudz V. Ya. Hrudz (jun.) R. V. Tereshchenko Copyright (c) 2019 Prospecting and Development of Oil and Gas Fields 2019-06-25 2019-06-25 2(71) 71 76 10.31471/1993-9973-2019-2(71)-71-76 ABOUT CHANGE OF THE LEVEL OF OIL IN THE STORAGE FLOATING-ROOF TANKTHROUGH ATMOSPHERIC BURNERS <p><em>The authors analyze the main tendencies in the reconstruction and development of tank farms of the main oil transportation system in Ukraine, namely the use of large-volume tanks with a floating roof. The authors consider one of the reasons that can complicate the operation of such tanks that is&nbsp; the presence of liquid (in the form of rain) or solid (snow and ice) atmospheric precipitation on it, which leads to the additional immersion of the floating roof of the tank into oil. The literature on the exploitation of floating roof tanks has been analyzed and it is found out that there are practically no data of measurements on the basis of which it is possible to estimate the influence of liquid atmospheric precipitation on the depth of immersion of tank floating roofs. The article shows the topicality of the issue from the point of view of commodity-transport operations on oil metering. The authors show the results of measuring the oil levels in the tank with regular appliances in the presence and absence of rainwater on the floating roof (after drainage of the latter through the drainage system) and the results of their treatment in order to determine the difference in the accounted oil mass in the tank caused by the accumulation of water on the roof, taking into account oil physical properties and the data of processing of the gauge tables of the tank.</em> <em>The results of natural measurements are analyzed and a simplified method of calculating the depth of immersion of a roof in the presence of additional loads on it in the form of atmospheric precipitation is developed. The oil level in the tank was determined using a standard system of the ENRAF type, and the determination of oil volumes was done using the gauge table of the tank.</em> <em>Based on physical regularities, the authors derive theoretical dependencies to determine the amount of atmospheric moisture on the floating roof depending on the volume (changes of the oil levels) of water on it.</em> <em>It is shown how to calculate the minimum amount of atmospheric water on the roof, which leads to the need to introduce corrections while determining the mass of oil in the tank using a static volume-mass method. This research has proved the necessity of introducing corrections while determining the level of oil in the tanks with floating roofs when there is atmospheric precipitation on the roof.</em></p> V. P. Lisafin N. V. Liuta Copyright (c) 2019 Prospecting and Development of Oil and Gas Fields 2019-06-25 2019-06-25 2(71) 77 83 10.31471/1993-9973-2019-2(71)-77-83